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Linux commands are still and they will always be very useful in a Linux system. I will try to list here, for linux beginners, some of the most important console commands:

Starting & Stopping

shutdown -h now – Shutdown the system now and do not reboot.

halt – Stop all processes – same as above.

shutdown -r 5 – Shutdown the system in 5 minutes and reboot.

shutdown -r now – Shutdown the system now and reboot.

reboot – Stop all processes and then reboot – as above.

startx – Start the X system.

Accessing & mounting file systems

mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom – Mount the device cdrom and call it cdrom under the /mnt directory.

mount -t msdos /dev/hdd /mnt/ddrive – Mount hard disk “d” as a msdos file system and call it ddrive under the /mnt directory.

mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/cdrive – Mount hard disk “a” as a VFAT file system and call it cdrive under the /mnt directory.

umount /mnt/cdrom – Unmount the cdrom

Finding files and text within files

find / -name fname – Starting with the root directory, look for the file called fname.

find / -name “*fname*” – Starting with the root directory, look for the file containing the string fname

locate missingfilename – Find a file called missingfilename using the locate command – this assumes you have already used the command updatedb (see next).

updatedb – Create or update the database of files on all file systems attached to the linux root directory.

which missingfilename – Show the subdirectory containing the executable file called missingfilename.

grep textstringtofind – Starting with the directory called dir, /dir look for and list all files containing textstringtofind.

Moving, copying, deleting & viewing files

ls -l – List files in current directory using long format.

ls -F – List files in current directory and indicate the file type.

ls -laC – List all files in current directory in long format and display in columns.

rm name – Remove a file or directory called name.

rm -rf name – Kill off an entire directory and all that includes files and subdirectories.

cp filename /home/dirname – Copy the file called filename to the /home/dirname directory.

mv filename /home/dirname – Move the file called filename to the /home/dirname directory.

cat filetoview – Display the file called filetoview.

man -k keyword – Display man pages containing keyword.

more filetoview – Display the file called filetoview one page at a time, proceed to next page using the spacebar.

head filetoview – Display the first 10 lines of the file called filetoview.

head -20 filetoview – Display the first 20 lines of the file called filetoview.

tail filetoview – Display the last 10 lines of the file called filetoview.

tail -20 filetoview – Display the last 20 lines of the file called filetoview.

Installing software for Linux

rpm -ihv name.rpm – Install the rpm package called name.

rpm -Uhv name.rpm – Upgrade the rpm package called name.

rpm -e package – Delete the rpm package called package.

rpm -l package – List the files in the package called package.

rpm -ql package – List the files and state the installed version of the package called package.

rpm -i –force package – Reinstall the rpm package called package having deleted parts of it (not deleting using rpm -e).

tar -zxvf archive.tar.gz or tar -zxvf archive.tgz – Decompress the files contained in the zipped and tarred archive called archive

./configure – Execute the script preparing the installed files for compiling.

User Administration

adduser accountname – Create a new user call accountname.

passwd accountname – Give accountname a new password.

su – Log in as superuser from current login.

exit – Stop being superuser and revert to normal user.

Source :: Softpedia

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